Oakdown Books. The Wave Magazine.
Archived from the original on November 12, The Reformation. New York: Simon and Schuster. A Cultural History of Alcohol. Pillars of the Church.
What Does the Bible Say About Drinking Alcohol?
Ayer Publishing. Holy Rule of St. It is with some hesitation, therefore, that we determine the measure of nourishment for others. However, making allowance for the weakness of the infirm, we think one hemina of wine a day is sufficient for each one. But to whom God granteth the endurance of abstinence, let them know that they will have their special reward.
If the circumstances of the place, or the work, or the summer's heat should require more, let that depend on the judgment of the Superior, who must above all things see to it, that excess or drunkenness do not creep in.
Christian views on alcohol
If [a monk] doth not amend after [being twice tardy], let him not be permitted to eat at the common table; but separated from the company of all, let him eat alone, his portion of wine being taken from him, until he hath made satisfaction and hath amended. Benedict, Chapter XL. Summa Theologica. A man may have wisdom in two ways.
First, in a general way, according as it is sufficient for salvation: and in this way it is required, in order to have wisdom, not that a man abstain altogether from wine, but that he abstain from its immoderate use. Secondly, a man may have wisdom in some degree of perfection: and in this way, in order to receive wisdom perfectly, it is requisite for certain persons that they abstain altogether from wine, and this depends on circumstances of certain persons and places.
This sacrament can only be performed with wine from the grape Now that is properly called wine, which is drawn from the grape, whereas other liquors are called wine from resemblance to the wine of the grape Must, however, has already the species of wine, for its sweetness indicates fermentation which is 'the result of its natural heat' Meteor. It is furthermore forbidden to offer must in the chalice, as soon as it has been squeezed from the grape, since this is unbecoming owing to the impurity of the must.
But in case of necessity it may be done. Catholic Encyclopedia. Bernard Ptolomei's idea of monastic reform was that which had inspired every founder of an order or congregation since the days of St. Benedict—a return to the primitive life of solitude and austerity. Severe corporal mortifications were ordained by rule and inflicted in public.
The usual ecclesiastical and conventual fasts were largely increased and the daily food was bread and water They were also fanatical total abstainers; not only was St. Benedict's kindly concession of a hemina of wine rejected, but the vineyards were rooted up and the wine-presses and vessels destroyed Truly, relaxation was inevitable. It was never reasonable that the heroic austerities of St. Bernard and his companions should be made the rule, then and always, for every monk of the order It was always the custom for each one to dilute the wine given him.
New York: Robert Appleton Company. Anthony Messenger. May Tryphon and wine". The Christian education of youth. Calvin's Commentaries, Harmony of the Law, Numbers 6.
The Swiss Reformation. Modern Reformation.
Viewed Puritans at Play. Palgrave Macmillan. Drinking In America. New York: Free Press. The Adam Clarke Commentary. Wine, in moderate quantity, has a wondrous tendency to revive and invigorate the human being.
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Ardent spirits exhilarate, but they exhaust the strength; and every dose leaves man the worse. Unadulterated wine, on the contrary, exhilarates and invigorates: it makes him cheerful, and provides for the continuance of that cheerfulness by strengthening the muscles, and bracing the nerves. This is its use. Those who continue drinking till wine inflames them, abase this mercy of God. Sermons of John Wesley. The Letters of John Wesley. In Thomas Jackson ed. The Sermons of John Wesley. December 25th, Doctrines and Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church. A History of the Methodist Episcopal Church.
New York: T. Mason and G.
God the Son
Lane for the Methodist Episcopal Church. Quadrennial Register of the Methodist Episcopal Church. I have had one thought about our citizens in general. I wish they would lay aside the use of wine and strong drink in general. God would suddenly and certainly work. I am determined not to go out of my way on that matter for five hundred presidents and all the bishops in the world. A discourse on the nature, design, and institution of the holy eucharist. The yayin of the Hebrews, the oinos of the Greeks, and vinum of the ancient Romans, meant simply the expressed juice of the grape, sometimes drunk just after it was expressed By the ancient Hebrews, I believe it was chiefly drunk in its first or simple state; hence it was termed among them the fruit of the vine; The matters made use of by Jesus Christ, on this solemn occasion, were unleavened bread, and the produce of the vine, i.
Adam Clarke's Commentary, 1 Corinthians Retrieved 20 April Salem : Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection. Pilgrim Publishing. Wisconsin Clearinghouse for Prevention Resources. Papers on Practical Religion. London: S. Partridge and Co. In January, , Rev. Calvin Chapin published in the Connecticut Observer a series of articles in which he took the ground that the only real antidote for the evils deprecated is total abstinence, not only from distilled spirits, but from all intoxicating beverages.
His position, however, was generally regarded as extreme, and he had few immediate converts to his opinions. Third Millennium Ministries.
In Bruce Metzger and M. Coogan ed.